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平衡與健康:正面情緒怎樣為我們帶來健康?

By on October 7, 2008 – 4:17 am  One Comment

陳曉翎 譯

Wayne JenckeWayne Jencke是Innate Intelligence,一家以澳洲為根據地,專門研究成功的科學的公司的產品發展經理。Innate Intelligence發表的
成功日誌會定期更新反映最新的研究去使人們能夠從生存轉向成功。Wayne的 ACCEPTional™ 心理恢復力和正面情緒智商(EI+™) 計劃由會員在亞太地區和歐洲地區廣泛發表。

每月七號通常都是Kathryn Britton發表的日期。她的文章會在本月的九號發表。

Balance Scales有許多研究把正面情緒和健康上的改善聯繫起來 (Steptoe & Wardle, 2005)。有些學者推測兩者之間的聯繫很有可能是通過自主神經系統 (ANS) (Thayer & Ruiz-Padial, 2006)。自主神經系統主要負責保持體內平衡。它由兩個主要部分組成——負責增加體內器官活動(例如加快心跳速度)的交感神經(SNS)和負責減少體內器官活動(例如減慢心跳速度)的副交感神經(PNS)。它們兩者互相拮抗,以達至體內平衡;一個很好的比擬就是:交感神經是車輛的加速器,而副交感神經就是車輛的制動器。

Autonomic Nervous System健康的人的兩個主要神經系統會協調地運作。副交感神經是自主神經系統中最活躍的部份,趨向回應得比交感神經快 (Porges, 2001) 。譬如在面對壓力的時候,副交感神經會減少活動去讓交感神經控制情況。這觸發所謂壓力反應(戰鬥或逃走)。當壓力消失時,副交感神經會增加活動去使身體回復正常的平衡狀態。因此,副交感神經普遍被叫作鎮定或者鬆弛反應。

可是,個別的原因(譬如老化、睡眠不足、長期壓力和運動不足)會使副交感神經活動水準下降,導致交感神經支配系統。這會影響身體正常運作的能力,形成生理疾病 (Masi et al, 2006)。

Car brake system交感神經的活動也可以預測情緒健康——特別是以健康、合適的方法去調節情緒的能力 (Appelhans & Luecken, 2006)。低水準的交感神經活動和抑鬱症(Chambers & Allen, 2002)、憂慮(Friedman & Thayer, 1993)、侵略性(Beauchaine et al, 2007)、防衛性(Movius & Allen, 2005)、創傷後壓力障礙症(Hopper et al, 2006)和敵意(Virtanen et al, 2003)都有著一定的聯繫。大概當我們提到「神經衰弱」或者「神經崩潰」時,我們確實是指交感神經的損傷(制動器的衰竭)。

較高水準的交感神經活動和心理恢復力有著一定的聯繫。舉例說,交感神經活動水準較高的孩子比較少會有婚姻衝突(Katz & Gottman, 1997)。近似的一個縱向研究發現,有較高交感神經活動水準的英國公務員在面對壓力時都有較高的心理恢復力。

Community也有證據顯示正面情緒和高水準的交感神經活動有著一定的聯繫。一些最早期由Barbara Fredrickson做的研究發現正面情緒會使一個剛看完喚起負面情緒的電影的人較快回復到正常的心跳頻率(Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998)。Barbara 的正面情緒和心理生理實驗室的最新研究發現,交感神經活動跟積極性和社交聯繫性是相關的(Kok & Fredrickson, no date)。所以,當人們回憶一個讓他們感覺感激的經驗時,他們的交感神經活動水準上升一點也不驚人 (McCraty et al, 1995)。而較高的交感活動水準也跟靈性有著一定的聯繫(Berntson et al, 2008)。

Walking a dog要提升交感神經的活動水準有一定的方法,特別是有效的壓力管理技巧,例如運動(Sandercock et al, 2005)、太極(Lee et al, 2002)、冥想(Takahashi et al, 2005)、推拿(Delaney et al, 2002)、瑜珈(Khattab et al, 2007)和攝取魚油(Holguin et al, 2005)。而也基於某些原因,遛狗比獨自散步更能提升交感神經的活動水準(Mattok et al, 2006)。

Blood Pressure Measurement市面上有電腦軟體教導以最理想的呼吸方法去提升交感神經的活動水準(Lehrer et al, 2003)。這套電腦軟體可有效治療抑鬱症(Karavides et al, 2007)、氣喘病(Lehrer et al, 2007)、纖維肌痛症狀群(Hassett et al, 2007)、憤怒和憂慮(Reiner, 2008)。

這軟體對人的情緒狀況也很敏銳。這軟體也是我推薦的訓練工具,因為它能把所有觸發正面情緒的活動都辨認出來——特別是最有影響力的一種正面情緒——滿足(Gilbert et al, 2008)。這一點也不讓人驚訝,因為這軟體測量鎮定反映的瞬間水準。我還對交感神經活動水準作出了以經驗為根據的觀察(根據電腦軟體的測量結果),辨認了一些能夠提升人們交感神經活動水準的一些因素:

  • 從事心流活動

  • 解決問題

  • 實踐注意

  • 對價值和長處匹配的活動作出反響

  • 積極從事有建設性的談話

我們談的是更平衡的生活——此外我們指的是一個能讓我們應付生命中無可避免的挑戰,並從當中恢復過來的,更平衡的自主神經系統。

參考書目:

Appelhans, B.M., Luecken, L J. (2006). Heart rate variability as an index of regulated emotional responding. Review of General Psychology, 10(3), 229-240.

Beauchaine, T.P., Gatze-Kopp, L., & Mead, H.K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174-184.

Berntson, G.G. , Norman, G.J. , Hawkley, L.C. (2008) Spirituality and autonomic cardiac control. Annals of Behavioural Medicine, 35(2), 198-208.

Britton, A., Singh-Manoux, A., Hnatkova, K., Malik, M., Marmot, M.G., & Shipley, M. (2008). The association between heart rate variability and cognitive impairment in middle-aged men and women: The Whitehall II cohort study. Neuroepidemiology 31 (2), 115-121.

Chambers A.S. & Allen, J.B. (2002). Vagal tone as an indicator of treatment response in major depression. Psychophysiology, 39, 861-864.

Delaney, J.P., Leong, K.S., Brodie, D. (2002). The short term effects of myofascial trigger point massage therapy on cardiac autonomic tone in healthy subjects. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(4), 364-71.

Fredrickson, B., Levenson, R. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 191-220.

Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Mitra, R., Franks, L., Richter, A., & Rockliff, H. (2008). Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(3), 182-191.

Hassett, A. L., Radvanski, D. C., Vaschillo, E. G., Vaschillo, B., Sigal, L. H., Karavidas, M. K., et al. (2007). A pilot study of the efficacy of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in patients with fibromyalgia. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 32, 1–10.

Holguin, F., Téllez-Rojo, M.M., Lazo, M., Mannino, D., Schwartz, J., Hernández, M., Romieu, I. (2005). Cardiac autonomic changes associated with fish oil vs soy oil supplementation in the elderly. Chest, 127 (4), 1102-1107.

Hopper, J.W., Spinazzola, J., Simpson, W.B., Van Der Lol., B.A. (2006), Preliminary evidence of parasympathetic influence on basal heart rate in post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 83-90.

Karavidas, M. K., Lehrer, P. M., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Marin, H., Buyske, S., et al. (2007). Preliminary results of an open-label study of heart rate variability biofeedback for the treatment of major depression. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 32, 19–30.

Katz, L.F. & Gottman, J.M. Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution (1997). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Child Psychology, 26(2), 157-171.

Khattab, K., Khattab, A.A., Ortak, J., Richardt, G., Bonnemeier, H.(2007). Iyengar Yoga increases cardiac parasympathetic nervous modulation among healthy yoga practitioners. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 4(4), 511-517.

Kok, B. E. & Fredrickson, B. L. (no date). The process of other-focus: Evidence for a psychophysiological model. Retrieved October 3, 2008 from http://www.bethanykok.com/BEK_APS_5_23_08.pdf

Lee, M.S., Huh, H.J., Kim, B.G., Ryu, H., Lee, H.S., Kim, J.M., Chung, H.T. (2002). Effects of Qi-training on heart rate variability. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 30(4), 463-70.

Lehrer, P. M., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Lu, S.-E., Eckberg, D. L., Edelberg, R., et al. (2003). Heart rate variability biofeedback increases baroreflex gain and peak expiratory flow. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 796–805.

Lehrer P.M., Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B, et al. (2004) Biofeedback treatment for asthma. Chest, 126, 352 – 61.

Masi, C.M., Hawkley,L.C., Rickett, E.M., Cacioppo, J.C. (2006). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and diseases of aging: Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Biological Psychology, 74 (2), 212-223.

Mattok, M., Koike. H., Yokoyama, T., Kennedy, N.L. (2006). Effect of walking a dog on autonomic nervous system activity in senior citizens. Medical Journal of Australia, 184(2), 60-62.

McCraty, R., Atkinson, M. Willer, W.A. Rein, G. Watkins, A.D. (1995), The effects of emotions on short-term power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability. American Journal of Cardiology, 76 (14), 1089-1092.

Movius, H.L., Allen, J.N. (2005). Cardiac vagal tone, defensiveness and motivational style. Biological Psychology, 68, 147-162.

Porges, S.W. (2001). The polyvagal theory: Phylogenetic substrates of a social nervous system. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42, 123–146.

Reiner, R. (2008). Integrating a Portable Biofeedback Device into Clinical Practice for Patients with Anxiety Disorders: Results of a Pilot Study. Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback 33, 55–61.

Sandercock, G.R., Bromley, P.D., Brodie, D.A. (2005). Effects of exercise on heart rate variability: Inferences from meta analysis. Medical Science Sports Exercise, 37(3), 433-439.

Steptoe, A. & Wardle, J. (2005). Positive affect and biological function in everyday life. Neurobiology of Aging, 26, S108-S112.

Takahashi, T., Murata, T., Hamad, T. Omoria, M. Koska, H, Kikuchi, M, Yoshida, H., Wada, Y. (2005). Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous system activity during meditation and their association with personality traits. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 55, 199-207.

Thayer, J.F. & Ruiz-Padial, E. (2006). Neurovisceral integration, emotions and health: An update. International Congress Series, 1287, 122-127.

Virtanen, R., et al. (2003). Anxiety and hostility are associated with reduced baroreflex sensitivity and increased beat-to-beat blood pressure variability. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(5), 751–756.

圖片:

Autonomic nervous system

Pushing on the brake

Walking a dog

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